In addition, seven magical remedies and practices are documented.
In comparison with other culturally related areas, this is a rich heritage.
The overall search pattern covered the title, abstract and keywords concerning ethnozoology-related disciplines that have UNESCO codes (e.g.
anthropology, the history of veterinary science, zoology) and the terms “invertebrates”, “folk veterinary medicine”, “folklore”, “ethnobiology”, “ethnozoology”, “ethnoentomology”, “ethnoveterinary medicine” and “zootherapy”, in conjunction with the Spanish geographical context.
No restrictions regarding the language of the publications consulted were imposed.
After performing a thorough analysis of the references retrieved and studied, the data were included in a database with a number of fields to characterise the animal species used, the ailment treated, the geographical location of the remedy and its corresponding bibliographic citation.
The two most relevant zoological groups were found to be insects and molluscs.
A broad diversity of body parts or derivative products have been and are used to treat or prevent ca.
Olive oil is a very important therapeutic resource in all cultures, both in ethnomedicine and EVM .
As well as being an extraction medium for active ingredients from animals, the chemical composition of this oil is rich in flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives and isochromans, and these offer added medicinal value since they account for its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, and wound-healing activities among others .
(see Table ] and, for example, around the first third of the last century in the Merindad de Tudela area (Navarra), the cobwebs were never removed from stables owing to the belief that they prevented stomach cramps in sheep and equines .
The majority of remedies (87) are of the curative type, and they are applied externally in 69 cases (79 %) and internally in 18 (21 %).
Zootherapeutics are usually applied in simple ways, mostly through direct application to the affected area and without preparation.