Northerners began to enter into Fujian region, causing the region to incorporate parts of northern Chinese dialects.However, the massive migration of northern Han Chinese into Fujian region mainly occurred after the Disaster of Yongjia.Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang, and other states in Northern Malaysia and Medan, with other areas in North Sumatra, Indonesia, a distinct form of Zhangzhou Hokkien has developed.
Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas Chinese in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines.
Southern Fujian is home to three principal Minnan Proper (Hokkien) dialects: Chinchew, Amoy, Chiangchew, originating from the cities of Quanzhou, Xiamen and Zhangzhou(respectively).
The Philippines variant is mostly from Quanzhou or Amoy (Xiamen), as most of their ancestors are from the aforementioned area.
Variants of Hokkien dialects can be traced to two sources of origin: Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
There are many Minnan(Hokkien) speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia as well as in the United States (Hoklo Americans).
Many ethnic Han Chinese emigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian, and brought the language to what is now Burma (Myanmar), Indonesia (the former Dutch East Indies) and present day Malaysia and Singapore (formerly Malaya and the British Straits Settlements).
The Jìn court fled from the north to the south, causing large numbers of northern Han Chinese to move into Fujian region.
They brought the Old Chinese spoken in Central Plain of China from prehistoric era to 3rd century into Fujian.
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).) is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian (福建), the province from which the language hails.
In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian such as Eastern Min or Hakka.
Traditionally speaking, Quanzhou dialect spoken in Quanzhou is the Traditional Standard Minnan, it is the dialect that is used in Liyuan Opera (梨园戏) and Nanying music (南音).